The European Regulation No 1907/2006 for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACh) was adopted by the European Parliament and the European Council in December 2006 and came into force on 1st June 2007.
The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of the REACH system.
Ferrous slags have been registered as UVCB subustances (Substances of Unknown and Variable composition, Complex reaction products or Biological materials)
More information and explanation on identification and naming of subtances can be found on the ECHA website.
The REACH regulation replaces a number of national regulations and directives with a single system. Just after implementation of the REACH regulation, the members of the FEhS-Institute and EUROSLAG initiated - in agreement with EUROFER - the registration of iron and steel slags as substances. Assuming that slag in general is not a waste but a by-product or product/secondary raw material, in 2009 the REACH Ferrous Slag Consortium – RFSC was founded to prepare the registration of ferrous slag before December 1st, 2010.
During the registration process, the available data on slag compositions and corresponding production processes from all European countries were evaluated and intensively discussed. As a result, the existing EINECS definitions have been revised. It was agreed to register all slag types as UVCB substances which are best described by their production process. Other identifiers are the most frequently found mineral components and, as additional information, the chemical composition.
End of 2010, the registration was successfully filed by RFSC-members which altogether represented 97 % of the European steel production of the year 2007. The registered slag families and the relevant CAS- and EINECS-numbers are given below. Usually, the so-called ABS and GBS are summarized as "blast furnace slag", while BOS, EAF C, EAF S and SMS are called "steel slags". The families SMS and EAF S include secondary metallurgical slag.
|Family no.||Common name||EINECS name||EINECS No.
|1||Granulated Blast furnace Slag
Air-cooled Blast furnace Slag
|Slag, ferrous metal, blast furnace
Slag, ferrous metal, blast furnace
|2||Basic Oxygen furnace Slag (converter slag)||BOS||Slag, steelmaking, converter||294-409-3
|3a||Electric Arc Furnace slag (from Carbon steel production)||EAF C||Slag, steelmaking, elec. furnace (stainless/high alloy steel production)||932-275-6|
|3b||Electric Arc Furnace slag (from Stainless/ high alloy steel production)||EAF S||Slag, steelmaking, elec. furnace (stainless/high alloy steel production)||932-476-9|
|4||Steelmaking slag||SMS||Slag, steelmaking||266-004-1
As slags are best described by their production process, the definitions given under REACH are as follows:
Slag, ferrous metal, blast furnace (granulated - GBS or air cooled - ABS)
Blast furnace slag is manufactured during the production of iron by thermo-chemical reduction in a blast furnace. It is formed in a continuous process by the fusion of limestone (and/or dolomite) and other fluxes with the residues from the carbon source and the non-metallic components of the iron bearing materials (e.g. iron ore, iron sinter). Blast furnace slag is generated at temperatures above 1500 °C. Dependent on the way of cooling of the liquid slag it can be distinguished between crystalline air-cooled blast furnace slag (ABS) and glassy granulated blast furnace slag (GBS).
Slag, steelmaking, converter – BOS
Converter slag is formed during the conversion of liquid iron (hot metal) into steel during a batch process in a basic oxygen furnace. The slag is generated by the addition of fluxes, such as limestone and/or dolomite, during blowing oxygen into the melt. Due to the oxidising conditions some elements (like Fe and Mn) are partly oxidised and contribute to the formation of the slag. Furthermore some components are either oxidised to gas (like carbon) or are chemically bound in the slag (like silicon or phosphorus). The liquid slag which has tapping temperatures of around 1600 °C is air-cooled under controlled conditions in pits forming crystalline slag.
Slag, steelmaking, elec. furnace – EAF C (carbon steel production)
Electric arc furnace slag from carbon steel production is formed during melting steel scrap in an electric arc furnace. The slag is generated by the addition of fluxes, such as limestone and/or dolomite. Furthermore some elements of the melt are oxidised and contribute to the formation of the slag. The liquid slag which has tapping temperatures of around 1600 °C is air cooled (possibly applying small amounts of water) under controlled conditions in pots or pits forming crystalline slag.
Slag, steelmaking, elec. furnace – EAF S (stainless/high alloy steel production)
Electric arc furnace slag from stainless steel production is formed during the manufacture of stainless or high alloy steel in different metallurgical vessels, e. g. electric arc furnace, converter and ladles. In this process, scrap (in some cases direct reduced iron) together with alloys is melted to stainless or special steel by means of electrical and chemical energy. The slag is generated by the addition of fluxes and reducing agents, e.g. lime and/or dolomite, silicon compounds or aluminium. The liquid slag which has tapping temperatures of around 1600°C is controlled and treated if necessary to improve the properties of the slag. Then, the slag is cooled under controlled conditions in pots or pits forming crystalline slag.
Steelmaking slags are generated during the steel production process. They arise e.g., from the conversion of hot metal to steel, from melting scrap in an electric arc furnace or from the subsequent treatment of crude steel. The composition of the slags varies depending on the process step in which they are produced. The molten slag which has tapping temperatures of around 1600°C is discharged into pots or pits where it cools and solidifies to provide an artificial aggregate having a crystalline structure.